By: Ahmad Munawir Siregar, Akhmad Hanan

Indonesia is currently focusing on the development of its new capital, Nusantara, in East Kalimantan Province. This city is designed to be a futuristic, sustainable, and secure metropolis. The development of Nusantara as the new administrative center reflects Indonesia’s strategic vision for the future and its Indonesia-centric principles.

In the context of national security, Nusantara holds a crucial role as the Centre of Gravity (CoG) that must be protected. As the seat of government and a national symbol, its security is vital for the stability and continuity of the nation. Drawing from the military theories of Carl von Clausewitz in his book “On War” (Vom Kriege), the CoG is a pivotal element in conflict. The relocation of the capital necessitates consideration of various threats, both military and non-military, as well as hybrid threats. The Effect Based Operation doctrine highlights that elements such as the military, population, infrastructure, and energy are core components of national power.

Indonesia is undergoing a major transformation through the development of Nusantara. As an archipelagic country, Indonesia must continuously improve the availability, accessibility, affordability, social acceptance, and sustainability of energy. One of the key factors for the successful transformation of Nusantara lies in its ability to manage energy to support daily needs and national energy security. With national energy consumption still predominantly reliant on fossil fuels, Indonesia faces challenges in transitioning to renewable energy sources. The industrial and transportation sectors are the largest consumers, heavily dependent on coal and oil. In 2022, the National Energy Council (DEN) measured the national energy security index, which stood at 6.64. This score indicates a fairly resilient state of national energy security but also highlights considerable room for improvement.

Nusantara is targeted to become a net zero carbon city by 2045. Renewable energy development is a priority, with a goal of 100% renewable energy usage for electricity generation in the core area of the capital. The implementation of smart grids and microgrids will optimize energy distribution and usage. Buildings in Nusantara are designed to be energy-efficient, using eco-friendly materials and advanced building technologies.

The relocation of the capital marks a significant shift in security and defense arrangements. Nusantara is divided into three key areas: central government, residential and educational zones, and technology development zones. A major focus is on ensuring a secure energy supply to support defense and security in the new capital, requiring an effective and dynamic defense system.

Geopolitical tensions in the South China Sea and Indonesia’s strategic geographic position add complexity to national resilience management. Integrating smart defense with energy security in Nusantara is imperative. An independent and sustainable energy system combined with advanced defense infrastructure and technologies such as AI, IoT, and Big Data will monitor and optimize energy usage while ensuring protection against cyber threats.

The abundant renewable energy potential in Kalimantan, including bioenergy, wind, hydro, and solar, can be integrated into a smart defense system. Kalimantan’s wealth of fossil fuels and renewable energy sources enhances its appeal. Specific energy potentials in East Kalimantan include 16,844 GW of hydro, 212 MW of wind, 13.47 GW of solar, and 17 MW of geothermal energy. Solar energy, in particular, is a prime candidate for implementation in Nusantara, supporting national defense and energy needs for offices, households, and public facilities.

The national energy management strategy must leverage existing human resources, natural resources, and infrastructure. Utilizing renewable energy for national defense can enhance efficiency and ensure energy availability in emergencies. Technologies like solar panels for sensors and monitoring equipment at military bases or electric vehicles in the military fleet offer solutions to reduce dependence on fossil fuels.

Integrating energy security and smart defense in Nusantara will ensure a reliable and secure energy supply, creating a safe and comfortable environment for its inhabitants. Strong energy resilience forms the foundation of a smart and sustainable defense system, enabling Nusantara to be a robust smart city model for the future.

Achieving this requires coordination among government agencies such as the Ministry of Defense, TNI, POLRI, and the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, along with the involvement of the private sector and the community. Establishing a National Security Council specifically for Nusantara should be considered to enhance decision-making speed and accuracy.

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